With the prevalence of social media and the obsession to explore the weird and wonderful, videos have emerged of food consumption that leaves many revolted and shocked. This led us to discuss what live food ingredients are available and consumed around the world?
As far as seafood is concerned there are a number of ingredients which are popular in Asia. In Korea octopus is cut into pieces, lightly seasoned in sesame oil and served immediately. This dish is known as Sannakji. Similarly, sea urchins are eaten raw; the Japanese prepare a sushi dish ‘uni’. Also in Japan, sashimi is prepared using live fish, octopus, shrimp or lobster from which the inedible innards are removed. The technique is known as ‘ikizukuri’ (‘prepared alive’). In China carp is cooked while the fish head is wrapped in a damp cloth to keep it breathing. The dish is known as Ying Yang Yu fish (‘dead and alive fish’). The Chinese are also fond of a dish known as ‘drunken shrimp’ whereby freshwater shrimps are immersed in ethanol before being eaten. A similar dish can be found in Japan whereby live prawns are beheaded before being consumed. This dish is known as Odori Ebi (‘dancing fish’). Another version, Qiang Xia, entails using clawed river shrimp which are soaked in a spirit, such as baiju followed by marinating in a sauce which can be sweet, sour or salty. Eels doused in vinegar and sake are eaten when alive in Japan.
In the West, oysters, are consumed fresh and until the oyster is removed from its shell it remains alive for a significant time. Similarly ‘live’ blood clams are a delicacy in New England, USA.
Amphibians and reptiles are also consumed alive in countries such as China, India, Japan and Vietnam. Frogs are served as sashimi, beating snake hearts are considered a delicacy and lizards are known to be eaten too.
Insects provide an alternative live food source. In Australia larvae such as the wichetty grub are consumed. Casu Marzu a sheep’s cheese speciality in Sardinia embraces the larvae of the cheese fly, Piophila casei. In Denmark, the two Michelin starred restaurant, Noma, received much attention when offering chilled ants on its menu.
Finally, some mammals are subject to being eaten alive; San Zhi Er (‘three squeaks’) is the practice of eating baby rodents in China and fruit bats have been traditionally eaten in Guam.
Cuisitive wishes to state that eating live food is subject to significant health risks and further, raises an important ethical issue given that there is evidence that animals featured in this article can feel pain and stress.
You may be familiar with the sachets of soy (or soya) sauce that come as an accompaniment to take-away food. Beyond this concoction of corn syrup, water, salt, caramel colour, vegetable protein, and sodium benzoate there is an enticing variety of soy sauces made by varied methods and offering a range of interesting and subtly different flavours, aromas and textures.
Asia is the origin of soy sauce and we feature here some of the varieties produced in the far East that we would encourage you to seek out.
Lets start with China
Chinese soy sauce can be broadly split into two methods of production: brewed or blended.
Brewing (or fermentation) using wheat, yellow black soybeans, salt, and water without additional additives is used to create four varieties:-
Shēng chōu (“fresh drawn”) or Jiàng qīng is a light fresh, thin, opaque sauce brewed by first culturing steamed wheat and soybeans with Aspergillus oryzae molds followed by fermenting the mixture in brine. It is primarily used for seasoning.
Tóu chōu is a ‘premium’ light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans as the flavour of the first pressing is considered superior. Primarily used for seasoning light dishes and for dipping due to its delicate flavour.
Shuāng huáng is a light soy sauce with a more complex flavour as a result of double fermentation using the light soy sauce from another batch to take the place of brine for a second brewing. This adds further complexity to the flavour. Used primarily for dipping.
Yìn yóu is a darker soy sauce produced by steamed soybeans with aspergillus mixed with coarse rock salt before undergoing prolonged dry fermentation. The flavour is complex and rich and is used for dipping or in “red” (hong) cooking. Brewed primarily in Taiwan.
There are four notable varieties.
Lǎo chōu (“mature drawn”) is a darker and slightly thicker sauce made from light soy sauce as a result of prolonged ageing and may contain added caramel colour and/or molasses to give it its distinctive appearance. Used mainly during cooking, as its slightly sweeter and less salty flavour is enhanced by heating.
Cǎogū lǎochōu known as “mushroom” dark soy. Straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) is mixed into dark soy sauce creating a richer flavour.
Jiàng yóu gāo is a dark soy sauce that has been thickened with starch and sugar and occasionally flavoured with spices and MSG. Used as a dipping sauce in red cooking because of its its sweetness and caramelised flavours.
Xiā zǐ jiàngyóu known as “shrimp” soy sauce. It is a fresh soy sauce which has been simmered with fresh shrimp and finished with sugar, baijiu (a type of distilled liquor, 白酒), and spices. A specialty of Suzhou.
Moving on to Japan
Soy sauce (Shōyu) is traditionally divided into five main categories according to their ingredients and method of production. Normally wheat is a primary ingredient, which tends to give Japanese soy sauces a slightly sweeter taste than those associated with China. Also small amounts of alcohol acting as a natural preservative are sometimes added giving an alcoholic sherry-like flavour.
Koikuchi (“thick taste”) is the typical Japanese soy sauce made from roughly equal quantities of soybean and wheat. Used in marinades as well as for dipping and in stir fries. Usukuchi (“thin taste”) is both saltier and lighter (arising from the use of amazake, a sweet liquid made from fermented rice). Particularly popular in the Kansai region. Used to season ingredients.
Tamari is darker in appearance and richer in flavour than koikuchi. containing little or no wheat. Also known as miso-damari as this is the liquid that runs off miso as it matures. Made mainly in the Chūbu region. Used as a dipping sauce.
Shiro (“white”) has a light appearance and sweet taste as it is made mostly of wheat and very little soybean. Used in the Kansai region as a dipping sauce for sashimi.
Saishikomi (“twice-brewed”) is much darker and more strongly flavoured as a result of replacing the saltwater brine in the fermentation stage of koikuchi with a previous batch of already brewed soy sauce. Also known as kanro shōyu or ‘sweet soy sauce’.
Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:- Gen’en (‘reduced salt’) which contains 50% less salt than regular soy sauce and Usujio (‘light salt’) containing 20% less salt than regular soy sauce. All Japanese soy sauce varieties are graded according to how they were made:- Honjōzō (“genuine fermented”) contains 100% genuine fermented product.
Kongō-jōzō (“mixed fermented”) contains genuine fermented shōyu mash mixed with 30–50% chemicals or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein.
Kongō (“mixed”) contains Honjōzō or Kongō-jōzō shōyu mixed with 30–50% chemicals or enzymatic hydrolysate of plant protein.
All varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality dependant on nitrogen content:-
Hyōjun ((Standard grade (more than 1.2% total nitrogen)), Jōkyū ((Upper grade (more than 1.35%)), Tokkyū ((Special grade (more than 1.5%)).
Soy sauce varieties are produced in a number of other Asian countries. In Indonesia there are three main varieties of Kecap. Kecap manis is a sweetened soy sauce with a thick syrupy consistency and a treacle-like flavour arising from the addition of palm sugar, star anise, galangal and other aromatics. Used as a flavouring.
Kecap manis sedang is a medium sweet soy sauce, less thick in consistency, less sweet and has a saltier taste than kecap manis.
Kecap asin is derived from the Japanese shoyu but is usually more concentrated with a darker colour and stronger flavour.
In addition there is Hakka soy sauce which is made from black beans and is very salty.
In Korea soy sauces or ganjang (“seasoning sauce”) can be divided into two categories: hansik ganjang (Korean-style soy sauce) and gaeryang ganjang (modernized soy sauce).
Hansik ganjang made entirely of fermented soybean (meju) has a distinctive fermented soybean flavour. It is lighter in colour and saltier than other Korean ganjang varieties.
It is categorised by its method of production, as follows:-
Jaerae-hansik-ganjang (“traditional Korean-style soy sauce”) – made with traditional style meju and brine.
Gaeryang-hansik-ganjang (“modern Korean-style soy sauce”) – made with nontraditional meju (which can be made of regular soybean, rice, barley, wheat, or soybean meal, and ripened using traditional method or aspergillus) and brine.
Depending on the period of ageing, hansik ganjang is also divided into three main varieties: clear, middle and dark, as follows:-
Haet-ganjang (“new soy sauce’) – aged for a year. Also called cheongjang (‘clear soy sauce’).
Jung-ganjang (“middle soy sauce”) – aged for three to four years.
Jin-ganjang (“dark soy sauce”) – aged for more than five years. Also called jinjang (‘aged soy sauce’), nongjang (‘thick soy sauce’), or jingamjang (‘aged mature soy sauce’).
Gaeryang-ganjang (“modernised soy sauce”) i.e. sauces not made of meju, is now the most widely used type of soy sauce in modern Korean cuisine. Also known as Jin-ganjang (‘dark soy sauce).
Gaeryang-ganjang is classified into four categories by method of production.
Brewed soy sauce – made by fermenting soybean, soybean meal, or other grains with saline solution.
Acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce – made by hydrolyzing raw materials containing protein with acid.
Enzyme-hydrolyzed soy sauce – made by hydrolyzing raw materials containing protein with enzyme.
Blended soy sauce – made by blending hansik-ganjang (Korean-style soy sauce) or yangjo-ganjang (brewed soy sauce) with acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce or enzyme-hydrolyzed soy sauce.
In the Philippines Toyò sauce is usually a combination of soybeans, wheat, salt, and caramel colour. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste than many of its Southeast Asian counterparts.
Varieties of soy sauce can be found also in Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam.
Despite this not inconsiderable range of commercially available sauces artisanal soy sauce producers are developing new products including a fifty year old aged sauce but you will need to be patient as this will not be available until 2039!
Bubble tea has taken western markets by storm lately but not a lot of people know what it is and how it is made.
Boba milk tea, boba juice and pearl milk tea are just some of the names given to this Taiwanese creation. Back in the 1980s in Taichung, Taiwan this tea-based drink was invented. To this day they refer to it as pearl milk tea but the term bubble has grown in acceptance outside Taiwan.
The essentials are tea with fruit or milk and chewy tapioca balls. Once all this is shaken together a foam is formed giving its name Bubble tea. There are some variations that exist these days but the traditional one of milk tea and tapioca as well as milk green tea and tapioca remain the most popular. Many Asians are lactose intolerant so it is not always added with alternatives like soy milk and other milk substitutes often used.
In general terms two distinct types can be defined – Fruit Flavoured and Milk Tea. Black tea (usually oolong or Earl Grey) are preferred as well as green tea (Jasmine) or even coffee.
The range of fruits used in bubble tea are only limited by your imagination. Here is a list of many of them: plum, strawberry, green apple, passion fruit, mango, lemon, watermelon, grape, lychee, peach, pineapple, melon, lychee, mango, banana, avocado, coconut, kiwifruit and jackfruit.
Other ingredients may be added including taro, chocolate, coffee, barley, sesame, almond, ginger, caramel, lavender and rose. To give some sweetness honey, agave or stevia can also be added along with of course sugar. One of the amazing things about Bubble tea is the different texture sensations. Not only are tapioca pearls added but also coconut jelly, konjac, grass, azuki bean, mung bean paste, sago and aloe.
Bubble tea is served cold in most circumstances with plenty of ice. It is important to note that with sour fruits, milk is normally not added as it can curdle the milk.
IS THIS THE NEXT BIG THING? THE GAC FRUIT
So what is this bizarre looking fruit? Momordica cochinchinensis is a Southeast Asian fruit found in a wide stretch of Asia from Southern China into northern Australia. The Gac fruit is a spiny gourd that is intensely red in colour with an orange interior. It is easy to grow in tropical zones but with a short harvest season of 2-3 months this luxury fruit is reserved for ceremonial or festive occasions in Vietnam like new year and weddings.
In recent years the fruit has been marketed outside of Asia in health food shops as dietary supplements. Traditionally the Gac fruit has been used as both food and medicine like a multitude of other ingredients in Asia.
THE FLAVOUR PROFILE
Dubbed the Fruit from Heaven, it has an average flavour profile but visually it really stands apart. Its orange pulp symbolises life, vitality and longevity. It is said to taste like cantaloupe and carrot mixed together. To some though the flavour can be quite bland and benefits from being combined with other stronger fruit flavours.
SCIENCE OF THE GAC FRUIT
It has a strong connection to the health of your eyes as it is said to improve your vision as well a high phytonutrient content. Probably even more important is the extremely high beta-carotene and lycopene found in the fruit (76 times more lycopene than commercial tomatoes). These important nutrients are antioxidants capable of capturing free radicals and thus protecting the body more. In addition the seeds contain high levels of Vitamin E.
GETTING IT READY TO EAT
When buying Gac in Asian markets look out for fruits that have a strong orange to red colour as this is a good indicator of ripeness.
HOW TO USE IT?
Basically there are seemingly two ways to use a Gac Fruit. One is as a juice and the other is to add it to rice. This second option is very traditional in Vietnam. In a dish called xôi gấc, the aril and seeds of the fruit are cooked in glutinous rice which gives the rich an attractive colour and distinctive taste.
FLAVOUR COMBINATION SUGGESTIONS
In Asia it is seemingly combined with either other fruits or rice. It goes very well with passionfruit and orange as well as other sweet fruit juices.
- To get to try it fresh you have to look in South East Asian markets
- Make sure you try it with rice when visiting Vietnam
A search of google will leave you thoroughly confused. Even amongst chefs that are famous for their use of spices, the answer is inconclusive. The aromatic quality of spices really depends on many factors. The freshness, storage and form principally. As a general rule it is not a bad idea to toast whole spices for a short time in a pan as it can release a bit more flavour.
Although slightly controversial, at Cuisitive we prefer to toast spices in a little oil, leading to some of the essential oils getting trapped and thus not losing crucial flavour. By dry roasting a spice, a lot of the essential oil is lost through evaporation.
The key to any toasting is to treat the spices with respect and avoid burning at all costs. A spice can go from aromatic to charred in seconds. Very similar to garlic when it hits the pan. Constantly move the spices around with a wooden spoon until they have darkened slightly and then remove from the heat.
Generally with powdered spices like Garam Masala we do not toast them at all. Because of the fine texture the risk of burning is so great and really there is little flavour benefit to doing it.
Whether you toast or not, really is up to you. Either approach has its benefits and drawbacks. The fact that in India most recipes are split down the middle between those that do and don’t toast says it all.
As long as spices are treated with care and attention you will produce great results.
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